African-scholarship online marketing solutions

Subscribe to African-scholarship.com



Progressive neurodegenerative Alzheimer disease

Progressive neurodegenerative Alzheimer disease: Alzheimer’s disease is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving neuronal loss leading to impairment in cognition and memory loss. Alzheimer’s disease is the leading cause of dementia in ageing and is characterised by the accumulation of aggregated protein known as an amyloid beta peptide. Alzheimer’s disease has also been associated with neuronal plaques and excessively phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau.

Some research and several clinical trials have focused on removal of amyloid beta peptide from the brain but have failed in attenuating disease progression which leads to doubt that aggregated amyloid beta peptide plays a central role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. The amyloid beta peptide alone does not explain the pathological progression of the Alzheimer’s disease and this condition is believed to be linked to dysregulated metal usage, neuronal function, powerhouse problem and oxidation.

Alzheimer disease
Alzheimer disease: Iron is elevated in the brain in Alzheimer’s disease. However, iron accumulation is also present in plaques. Adapted from Rouault et al., 2013.

In addition apolipoprotein, E has been linked to the neurobiology of neurodegenerative diseases. In humans, the apolipoprotein E exists in three different forms designated apolipoprotein E2, apolipoprotein E3, and apolipoprotein E4. The apolipoprotein E3 is considered the normal and most common form of apolipoprotein E.

The apolipoprotein E is a 34 kDa protein associated with very low-density lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins in cholesterol metabolism. This protein binds to proteins including the low-density lipoprotein receptor and heparin sulphate proteoglycans. The apolipoprotein E also function in the control of plasma and tissue lipid content. The apolipoprotein E is highly expressed in the brain and make up the lipid transport system in cerebrospinal fluid and plays a crucial role in repair by using lipids to regenerate axons Schwann cells during remyelination.

In the brain, apolipoprotein E is expressed by astrocytes, microglia, whereas neurones do not express apolipoprotein under normal conditions but in injured neurones in response to injury.

Involvement of iron in Alzheimer’s disease

Iron is elevated in the brain in Alzheimer’s disease. However, iron accumulation is also present in plaques. Several studies showed that iron promotes the aggregation of amyloid beta peptide. Studies acknowledge that metals bound to amyloid beta peptide also cause amyloid beta peptide neurotoxic effect. However, several studies suggest that the role of metals, in general, is beyond a simple contribution to amyloid beta-peptide toxicity. Also, damage associated with amyloid beta peptide because of its high affinity for binding iron and copper and its ability to  reduce both metals leading to hydrogen peroxide formation and subsequent neuronal damage.

In addition to amyloid beta peptide peptides, iron also binds to tau, affects its phosphorylation and induces aggregation of tau , thus this condition can be reversed by iron chelators .

http://african-scholarship.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/RBC-brain-min.jpghttp://african-scholarship.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/RBC-brain-min-150x150.jpgAfricanscholarshipAcademic HealthScholarship informationAcademic HealthProgressive neurodegenerative Alzheimer disease Progressive neurodegenerative Alzheimer disease: Alzheimer’s disease is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving neuronal loss leading to impairment in cognition and memory loss. Alzheimer’s disease is the leading cause of dementia in ageing and is characterised by the accumulation of aggregated protein known as an amyloid...We serve the Africans with prestigious scholarships

Topic Related Comments and Discussion

comments

African-scholarship online marketing solutions